Wednesday, 21 January 2015

C# Windows Forms Program to read a CSV file

 using System;  
 using System.Collections.Generic;  
 using System.ComponentModel;  
 using System.Data;  
 using System.Drawing;  
 using System.Linq;  
 using System.Text;  
 using System.Threading.Tasks;  
 using System.Windows.Forms;  
 using System.IO;  
 using MichaelFerrie C# Windows Forms Application;  
   namespace WindowsFormsApplication1  
 {  
     public partial class Form1 : Form  
   {  
     static string csvFilePath = "path to csv here.csv";  
     private TweetAnalysis tweetAnalysis = new TweetAnalysis(csvFilePath);  
     public wsT.WebService1 x = new wsT.WebService1();  
     public Form1()  
     {  
       InitializeComponent();  
     }  
     private void Form1_Load(object sender, EventArgs e)  
     {  
     }  
     private void button1_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)  
     {  
       string input = textBox1.Text; // grab the input from textbox one and passinto the input string  
       tweetAnalysis.Expand(input); // pass the input to the tweetanalysis  
       string expansion = tweetAnalysis.Expand(input); // return the value for input from tweetanalysis  
       textBox2.Text = (expansion); // populate textbox 2 with the data  
       //for the final part of the windows form this code will append the date and time onto a csv file  
       //with the abbreviations using streamwriter  
       StreamWriter myOutputStream = new StreamWriter("output.txt", true);  
       string dateandt = DateTime.Now.ToString();  
       myOutputStream.Write(input + "," + expansion + "," + dateandt + Environment.NewLine); // advice taken from here http://www.blackwasp.co.uk/WriteTextFiles.aspx  
       myOutputStream.Close();         
     }  
   }  
 }  

A report on the future of the pirate bay

A report I wrote looking at the future of the pirate bay and torrent technology in  late 2014 from a UK perspective.



Abstract

BitTorrent software is utilised by the website known as the piratebay. This report briefly explains BitTorrent technology and how this works, it also explains how the piratebay utilises that technology. A comparison of legal cases with outcomes in favour of and against the ongoing use of the piratebay to download copyrighted material is detailed, and how these legal implications will affect both BitTorrent and the piratebay in future.

Introduction


In 2014 the piratebay is one of the most visited sites on the internet, many corporations see this as a threat to their business, however the people behind the piratebay do not consider their website to be doing anything illegal. This report contains a brief examination of the technology behind BitTorrent and
the website for downloading torrent files, the piratebay. It shows how these have had a legal impact on modern internet users; with arguments in favour of and against continuing use of the piratebay and how this may affect downloading media in future.

1. BitTorrent Technology


The technology used in BitTorrent is a suite of protocols designed and owned by a company called BitTorrent Inc. based in San Francisco. According to the company's website BitTorrent.com, (BitTorrent Inc., 2014) BitTorrent technology moves, “40% of the world’s internet traffic on a daily basis”. BitTorrent works using a program called a client, allowing the user to click a link to a BitTorrent file, and then download this file from a number of uploaders. In the BitTorrent system uploaders are referred to as seeders and downloaders are referred to as leechers. When a torrent exists on the internet, the collection of seeders and leechers are known as a swarm. “A swarm is a set of peers sharing a single
set of files, also called a torrent file.” (Poort et al, 2013). This means that once a file is uploaded by an initial seeder, any number of leechers can download the file, these downloaders then become peers in the swarm. “When joining a swarm, a BitTorrent application contacts a tracker, which responds with an
initial peer set of randomly selected peers,” (Fauzie et al, 2011). This method of file sharing makes BitTorrent a peer-to-peer technology meaning that no one person or server is providing the data to the leecher, it exists on the computers of a swarm of seeders, selected by the BitTorrent client. There are
many freely available BitTorrent client applications which will facilitate the downloading of torrent files.Once a torrent is created a link to the file can be shared on a website, one of the most common websites to list a searchable index of these links is the piratebay.

2. The Piratebay


In Sweden in the early 2000s the piratbyrån (pirate bureau) was established among a group of friends over the internet, the name is a play-on-words referring to the Swedish department against piracy, the antipiratbyrån. One project of the piratbyrån was piratebay.se, a website started by three Swedes
Gottfrid Svartholm, Fredrik Nei and Peter Sunde, the idea behind the piratebay was to create a website where people could share links to torrent files. This type of website is known as a torrent tracker, the site only lists links therefore it was hosted on just a few small servers. This is a key part of the decentralised nature of BitTorrents, the piratebay grew in popularity, “becoming the largest BitTorrent site in terms of traffic in 2008 (Alexa) when it reached 25 million unique peers” (Adhermon & Liang, 2014). The piratebay facilitates sharing digital copies of computer games, applications, music, and videos, its logo shows a pirate ship with a cassette tape on which is a skull and crossbones. This is a
humorous take on the 1980s and 1990s ideology, in which people would purportedly ruin the music industry by recording music onto tapes. The EU and the Swedish government attempted to shut down the website, and on the “March 31, 2006, wherein servers were confiscated. Law suits and trials followed with hearings starting on February 16, 2009” (Ibid). The founders of the piratebay were found guilty of violation of the Intellectual Property Rights Enforcement Directive 2004/48/EC (European Parliament, 2004). Despite raids by the police and legal action the site still continues to operate, however governments and copyright owners are trying to combat torrent sites through legal preventative blocking measures.

3. Who is against the Piratebay?


In the UK the website piratebay is currently blocked by most of the major internet service providers (ISP's) this is a result of a ruling by the High Court, following a case of Entertainment companies versus ISP's in 2012 (Dramatico Entertainment Ltd & Ors v British Sky Broadcasting Ltd & Ors, 2012). The
court ruled in favour of the entertainment companies and instructed the major ISP's in the UK to block the piratebay's URL. The court enforced a ruling, “requiring the defendants to take measures to block or at least impede access by their customers to a peer-to-peer (P2P) file-sharing website called The Pirate
Bay” (Ibid). Following this court decision attempting to access the piratebay will return an error *1 page from the ISP to the user. Similar rulings have been enforced across the EU as well as in India and China. In his 2013 book Andrew Murray (Murray, 2013) shows that a year after this court ruling the piratebay is still a popular site, he states, “the Pirate Bay is still the 397th most visited site in the UK: well below its global ranking of 75th.” Entertainment companies have tried to stop people from sharing copyrighted media however the general public persist, a reason for this may be that the piratebay doesn’t actually host copyrighted files, it allows users to search for links similar to a search engine.

4. Who is for the Piratebay?


In contrast to the laws enforced by UK courts, the Dutch legal system recently removed a block of the piratebay. In a ruling in favour of two Dutch ISP's Ziggo and XS4Al, who used the evidence presented in the Baywatch Report published by the University of Amsterdam(Poort et al, 2013). The Baywatch report
gives evidence to refute blocking the piratebay is and details a study on the effect of blocking URL's. The report provides evidence to support, “an immediate effect of the blocking is found that does not change over time. In the end it is important to realise that the majority of customers did not download
(any more) at the time of the blocking, so that for them the blocking has no effect at all”(Ibid). According to the report blocking deters new users trying BitTorrent but doesn't actually reduce the number of people already using the service, in most cases they find an alternative tracker or alternative pathway to

*1 footnote
When visiting piratebay.se through the Sky ISP this message is displayed “Access Blocked - Sorry, this
web site piratebay.se is not available through BSkyB.”



the piratebay. The report provides statistics from the two aforementioned Dutch ISP's, showing that illegal downloading actually increased by under 3% in the ten months following the Dutch block of the piratebay (Ibid). The UK high court ruled that major ISP's block the URL of the piratebay (Dramatico Entertainment Ltd & Ors v British Sky Broadcasting Ltd & Ors, 2012), soon after this an organisation named the UK Pirate Party launched the hydrabay 2* which is a list of proxy server links to the piratebay, not yet blocked by ISP's. A recent report on the success of the hydrabay explained. “The UK Pirate Party received over 10 million hits to their own proxy in the first month of the Hydra Bay campaign”
(McKelvey, 2014). The hydrabay is freely accessible in the UK and hosts an ever changing list of links to the piratebay, should one of them be blocked by an ISP several others are added – this shows the ineffectiveness of blocking URL’s as a solution to the problem of access to the piratebay.

5. The future of the Piratebay and BitTorrent


At present the piratebay's founders are tied in legal disputes, yet the website continues to operate with redundancy in a large list of mirror sites. Evidentially with proxy lists like the hydrabay in the UK, the blocking strategy, “does not last long for online copyright enforcement” (Yang, 2014), if one URL is blocked there will always be several more to block. Recently the piratebay was overtaken as the world’s most visited torrent tracker by the kickasstorrents, which is presently the 78 th most popular website in the world (Alexia, 2014). There are a number of third party torrent clients that continue to update and provide new versions of client software, and at present the UK government is using torrents to transfer large files of tax data (Her Majesty's Treasury, 2014). This shows BitTorrent itself is a reliable, scalable and fast method of allowing users to download large files.

6. Conclusion


The Swedish pirate party was founded in 2006 to combat restrictive copyright laws enforced by the antipiratbyrån, at present there is a definite trend towards more and more information sharing, however this doesn’t necessarily mean stealing - as entertainment corporations have defined it. BitTorrent
technology and the piratebay have allowed people to link up across the world gaining close to instant access to media and software that may not have been possible to access in the past. Following the historic argument of the cassette tape ruining recorded music, a transition to more modern forms of media such as CDs and MP3 players allowed the music industry to adapt. Now the entertainment industry is fighting a similar battle, instead of adapting to the current availability of internet downloads. A transition to more modern forms of distribution will unquestionably have to take place, as an alternative to fighting ongoing series of legal disputes against websites like the piratebay.

2* Footnote
The hydrabay is now accessible at http://www.piratebayproxylist.com/2012/05/pbpl-pirate-bay-proxy-
list.html


Reference List

Adermon A Liang C, (2014). Piracy and Music Sales: The Effects of an Anti-Piracy Law. Journal of
Economic Behaviour and Organization. 105 (), pp.5

Alexia (2014). Site Overview kickass.to. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.alexa.com/siteinfo/kickass.to.
[Last Accessed 17 Nov 2014].

BitTorrent Inc. (2014). About BitTorrent. [ONLINE] Available at:
http://www.bittorrent.com/company/about. [Last Accessed 16 Nov. 2014]

Directive 2004/48/EC of the European Parliament (2004). Directive on the enforcement of intellectual
property rights. [ONLINE] Available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/HTML/?
uri=CELEX:32004L0048R%2801%29&from=EN. [Last Accessed 16 Nov 2014]

England and Wales High Court (Chancery Division) Decisions (2012). Dramatico Entertainment Ltd &
Ors v British Sky Broadcasting Ltd & Ors. [ONLINE] Available at:
http://www.bailii.org/ew/cases/EWHC/Ch/2012/268.html. [Last Accessed 16 Nov. 2014].

Fauzie M, Husni Thamrin R, Van Meter J, Murai J, (2011). A Temporal View of The Topology of Dynamic
Bittorrent Swarms. IEEE Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS). (e.g. 2),
pp.894

Her Majesty's Treasury (2014). Datasets Combined Online Information System. [ONLINE] Available at:
http://data.gov.uk/dataset/coins. [Last Accessed 17 Nov 2014].

McKelvey F, (2014). We like Copies, Just Don't Let the Others Fool You: The Paradox of The Pirate
Bay. Television New Media. e.g. 32 (e.g. 2), pp.9

Murray A, (2013). Information Technology Law: The Law and Society. 2nd ed. pp.283 UK: OUP Oxford

Poort J, Leenheer J, Van der Ham J, Dumitru C, (2013). Baywatch: two approaches to measure the
effects of blocking access to The Pirate Bay. Institute for Information Law, University of
Amsterdam/CentERdata, Tilburg University/System and Network Engineering, University of
Amsterdam. (), pp.2

Yang S, The Road of Cooperation, (2014) Assessing the Evolving Interaction between Copyright

Owners and ISP's: ISP Legislation to the Graduated Response, Indiana University, Available at SSRN:
http://ssrn.com/abstract=2430213 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2430213